Biometric criminal identification programs, while popularly thought to be for
forensic investigation, were created to support accurate criminal record
keeping and the administration of justice. This remains the primary purpose of
today. The need for such records arose from a shift in the philosophy of
punishment from classical to reformist jurisprudence, coupled with individual
mobility and urbanization. This presentation will address the main FBI
biometric modalities, primarily focusing upon fingerprints and DNA, offering
some suggestions to the researcher interested in public safety applications of
biometrics. Four successive waves of FBI technology insertion to improve
fingerprint identification as processes evolved from entirely manual to
primarily "lights out" automation will be addressed. The ongoing
evolution of known subject DNA analysis from the laboratory setting to the
point of collection will also be examined.
James Loudermilk is the Senior Level Technologist for the FBI Science and
Technology Branch. He focuses upon identification issues, especially
biometrics, and frequently represents the FBI on these topics. He recently
served as the Department of Justice co-chair of the Biometrics and Identity
Management Subcommittee of the National Science and Technology Council. He
continues to co-chair the interagency working group that has replaced the NSTC
subcommittee. He is a member of the FBI Biometric Steering Committee and
Institutional Review Board. He previously was chief engineer and deputy program
manager for the $640 million Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification
System (IAFIS), which includes the national criminal history and fingerprint
check systems. He also led the development of the National Instant Criminal
Background Check System and call center which supports purchase eligibility
checks for firearms and explosives.
He has also served as FBI Chief IT Architect, Chief IT Strategist, Deputy Chief
Technology Officer, and Assistant Director of the IT Operations Division.
Before entering the civil service, Mr. Loudermilk was in the private sector for
over twenty years, holding various executive positions, in system engineering,
software development, program management, logistics, and was a divisional CIO.
Loudermilk holds Bachelor's and Master's Degrees in Mathematics from
the University of Dayton and the Degree of Applied Scientist, in Communications
Engineering, from the George Washington University. He is a graduate of the
U.S. Army Command and General Staff College.
Dr. Arun Ross